STUDENT AMERICAN OSTEOPATHIC ACADEMY OF ORTHOPEDICS
The 2006 – 2007 Development Proposal for the formation of a Student American Osteopathic Academy of Orthopedics (SAOAO) stems from the vision of a student run organization under the American Osteopathic Academy of Orthopedics (AOAO, Academy).
The field of Orthopedics is a specialty that is growing in importance and popularity within the medical profession as a direct result of patient need and success of the orthopedic practice.
The Academy itself was not formed until 1941, later receiving its official recognition by the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) in 1950.
The Academy is gaining status in the field of Osteopathic Medicine and the specialty of Orthopedics. However, there is an obvious need to further the Academy’s growing success.
This need can partially be fulfilled by extending the Academy’s expertise and support to the students interested in the specialty of Orthopedic surgery as there is a growing discrepancy in the number of Osteopathic Orthopedic Residents as compared to the number of Allopathic Orthopedic Residents in both the number of programs available and Orthopedic Surgeons graduating from these programs.
Halfway through the Bone and Joint Decade of 2000 – 2010, it is now time to bridge the gap between Orthopedic Physicians and Student Physicians in order to become a more significant driving force in the field of Orthopedics. With this growing involvement and acceptance of Osteopaths in the orthopedic community, now is the time to look towards the future of not only the orthopedic profession, but at healthcare in general. The future lies with Osteopathic Medical Students.
There are a total of 38 Osteopathic Schools in 62 locations in the United States, all with students that are interested in the medical specialty of Orthopedic Surgery. Unfortunately, only 36 of the schools currently have student-run American Osteopathic Academy of Orthopedics organizations or “clubs”.
- T. Still University of Health Sciences School of Osteopathic Medicine – Arizona
- T. Still University of Health Sciences School of Osteopathic Medicine – Kirksville
- Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine – Midwestern
- Burrell College of Osteopathic Medicine at New Mexico State University
- Campbell University School of Osteopathic Medicine
- Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine – Midwestern
- Des Moines University College of Osteopathic Medicine
- Idaho College of Osteopathic Medicine
- Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences COM – Joplin
- Kentucky College of Osteopathic Medicine – Pikesville
- Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine – Bradenton
- Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine – Erie
- Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine – Seton Hill
- Lincoln Memorial University College of Osteopathic Medicine
- Lincoln Memorial University College of Osteopathic Medicine – DeBusk
- Marian University College of Osteopathic Medicine
- New York Institute of Technology College of Osteopathic Medicine
- NOVA Southeastern University College of Osteopathic Medicine
- Oklahoma State University Center of Health Sciences College of Osteopathic Medicine
- Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine – Cleveland
- Ohio University Heritage COM – Dublin
- Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine – Georgia
- Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine – Philadelphia
- Pacific Northwestern University of Health Sciences College of Osteopathic Medicine
- Rocky Vista University College of Osteopathic Medicine – Colorado
- Rocky Vista University College of Osteopathic Medicine – Southern Utah
- Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine
- Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine – California
- Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine – Middletown
- Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine – New York Harlem
- Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine – Nevada
- University of the Incarnate Word School of Osteopathic Medicine
- University of New England College of Osteopathic Medicine
- University of North Texas Health Science Center
- Western University College of Osteopathic Medicine – Pomona, CA
- William Carey University College of Osteopathic Medicine
By providing these schools with support and education from the Academy, Osteopaths will continue to succeed in the specialty of Orthopedics.
This would not be possible without support of The Academy’s President, Dr. Edward Armbruster, DO.
The Mission of the SAOAO is to form a bridge between Osteopathic Medicine and Orthopedic Surgery, in order to create a holistic functioning system to provide all the members with the opportunity to change the future of Osteopathic Orthopedic medicine by being well educated and experienced health care practitioners.
SAOAO Inception Process
Upon approval of this Associations Constitution and Bylaws the Development Committee chose a select group of students from the country to compose the first Board of Directors.
At the closing of the developmental term in 2007, all Osteopathic Medical schools have a regional chapter governed by the student representatives.
All regional chapters will be coordinated through the SAOAO and the executive committee.
All members of the regional chapters of the SAOAO were granted student membership in the Academy.
At the general meeting of the Academy in May 2007, the first officers were voted into office by the regional representatives.
The Academy in conjunction with the SAOAO will provide SAOAO with the opportunity and funding to aid in research to advance and promote osteopathic orthopedic medicine.
CONSTITUTION AND BYLAWS
Section 101. Establishment. (a) The name of this organization shall be the Student American Osteopathic Academy of Orthopedics. (b) This name shall officially be abbreviated “SAOAO”. The Student American Osteopathic Academy of Orthopedics may herein be referred to as the “SAOAO”.
Title II –Objectives
Section 201. Purpose of the SAOAO. (a) The SAOAO shall promote and advance interest in the specialty of Orthopedic Surgery, (b) improve the quality of healthcare delivery to the American people and the world, (c) provide opportunities and promotion for research and publication, (d) contribute to the knowledge, welfare, and education of osteopathic medical students in the specialty of Orthopedic Surgery, (e) familiarize its members with the purpose and ideals of osteopathic medicine and Orthopedic Surgery, (f) aid in residency application procedures, (g) encourage voluntary community service, (h) establish lines of communication with other health science students and organizations, (i) prepare members to meet the social, moral, and ethical obligations of the osteopathic medical profession and (j) provide mentorship opportunities to osteopathic medical students.
Section 202. Legislative Assistance. (a) The SAOAO shall assist each chapter in its efforts to educate its state governor and legislators concerning the osteopathic medical profession by writing letters, paying visits, and making phone calls to key officials, and (b) come to the aid of any of the colleges of osteopathic medicine facing political attack in their own state.
Title III – Membership
Section 301. General. All active and enrolled medical students at AOA accredited osteopathic medical schools who are also members of national SAOAO, shall be full and equal members of the SAOAO.
Section 302. Active Membership. (a) Only Active Members shall have voting privileges. (b) To be admitted to Active Membership in SAOAO, an applicant must be enrolled, and in good standing, at an AOA accredited osteopathic medical school, have paid the appropriate national dues, and be a member in good standing of their local chapter of the SAOAO, if an applicable local chapter exists. (c) Active Membership is limited to students through their date of graduation. (d) Any student who is dismissed from their osteopathic medical school of record shall have their Active Membership in the SAOAO summarily terminated. (e) No appeal process is available in this action.
Section 304. Termination of Membership. The SAOAO reserves the right to terminate membership of any member if circumstances justify such an action.
- Process of Suspension – The Executive Board, by unanimous vote, may take this action after due consideration.
- Appeal of Suspension – An appeal may be made if the ex-member alleges that the sanction was given arbitrarily, capriciously, in bad faith, or in violation of the law. In such cases the burden of proof for these allegations shall rest with the ex-member. The Executive Board shall deliberate on the validity of the appeal and, by a unanimous vote, take such appropriate action as: a. to accept the appeal, reopen the issue, and then vote again on the suspension, or b. deny the appeal and allow the sanction to officially stand.
Title IV – Officers
Section 401. National Officers. (a) The Officers of the SAOAO shall be: Immediate Past President as ex-officio, President, Vice President, Secretary, Treasurer, Conference Chair, Membership and Recruitment Chair. (b) National Officers will be elected by members of the SAOAO, provided that during a term of office, they maintain good standing, as described in Section 301.
Section 401.’ (a) A membership extension will be granted to any 4th year osteopathic medical school student who serves as President, to allow the appointment to the office of Immediate Past President.
(C) The President, Vice President, Secretary, Treasurer, Conference Chair, Recruitment Chair, and Membership Chair shall here-in-after and throughout be referred to as the “Executive Board.”
Section 402. Terms. (a) Officers, as defined in Section 401, shall serve for one year. (b) The term for newly elected officers will begin at the conclusion of the conference or meeting that the elections are held. (c) The outgoing SAOAO Executive Officers will continue to serve in helping to transition the newly elected officers for the remainder of the months until the next Post-Graduate Conference.
Section 403. General Duties. The duties of SAOAO Officers, as defined in Section 401, shall be to unify local chapters as a national organization, address questions, concerns, and complaints of SAOAO local chapters and members, assure continuation of SAOAO programs, assist in the development of additional SAOAO programs, and delegate authority for specific activities and functions.
Section 404. Officers’ Duties. (a) The President shall,
- Oversee all the current events and projects of national SAOAO activities,
- preside over Council Meetings, preside over National Meetings, appoint members of standing and special committees,
iii. assist the SAOAO Treasurer in preparing an annual budget and approving reimbursement requests, and
- serve as SAOAO’s official representative on the AOAO Board of Directors, should such position be available. In so doing, the president will
- attend AOAO Board of Directors meetings before national conventions,
- participate in AOAO Board of Directors teleconferences,
- provide written and oral reports to the Board of Directors to coincide with semi-annual
- serve on or appoint a representative to serve on AOAO committees at AOAO President’s
- provide written updates 3 times per year to the AOAO newsletter, The Orthopod,
- serve as consultant, informant, and representative as directed by the current AOAO president.
(b) The Vice President shall,
- assume the duties of President in the event of an absence of the President from an Official SAOAO meeting or event,
- serve as SAOAO’s alternate official representative on the AOAO Board of Directors, should such position be available,
iii. preside over Committee meetings,
- be responsible for the planning and completion of a project to aid SAOAO in achieving its objectives outlined in Section 201,
- This project must be approved by the SAOAO President.
- Act on behalf of the SAOAO to procure and maintain professional associations and communication with companies and corporations involved in the production of orthopedic or related devices,
- perform other duties as directed by the SAOAO President.
(c) The Secretary shall,
- notify Executive Board and Committee members of appropriate meetings,
- maintain the attendance record at all Executive Board and National Council meetings,
iii. record, distribute, post, and file the minutes of Executive Board and National Council meetings,
- collect all agendas and documentation distributed at Executive Board, National Council, and Committee meetings, and keep a file of all documentation received for this purpose,
- keep record of standing and special committees and members of those committees,
- Act as Parliamentarian as defined in Robert’s Rules of Order (10th Edition) during SAOAO Executive Board and SAOAO National Council meetings,
- Shall assume the role Chairperson should the President or President-Elect be absent or otherwise delegate the duties of Chair during debate,
- Shall be the final authority on questions involving debate, procedure, and interpretation of SAOAO Bylaws and Standing Rules,
vii. perform other duties as directed by the SAOAO President.
(d) The Treasurer shall:
- Keep an accurate, current, written record of all SAOAO monies collected and expended,
- Prepare an annual budget to be approved by the Executive Board,
iii. Submit a report of the financial activities of SAOAO at Executive Board meetings,
- Prepare and present the annual SAOAO budget allocations for Executive Board approval,
- Receive, process, and submit requests for reimbursement for expenses accrued for SAOAO activities and events,
- Disburse funds for National or Chapter SAOAO activities as allocated by the budget and/or by Executive Board approval,
vii. Assist in the preparation of the budget, help develop fundraising plans, and make financial information available to Executive Board members and the public,
viii. Be responsible for ordering and disseminating SAOAO membership cards for new members and for replacement, and
- Perform other duties as directed by the SAOAO President.
(e) The Conference chair shall
- preside over the convention committee, should one be formed,
- oversee the planning, preparation, organization, and execution of semi-annual national student meetings,
iii. assist in the advertisement and promotion of activities and events,
iii. manage SAOAO social media pages
- Perform other duties as directed by the SAOAO President.
(f) The Recruitment chair shall,
- Work closely with AOAO Ambassador Committee, and execute initiatives on SAOAO and Local chapter level
preside over recruitment committee, should one be formed,
- collect and maintain annual national student roster from SAOAO chapters,
iii. present chapters for official SAOAO recognition
- Perform other duties as directed by the SAOAO President.
(g) The Membership chair shall,
- collect and maintain annual national student roster from SAOAO chapters
- Perform other duties as directed by the SAOAO President
(h) The Immediate Past President shall,
- serve as ex-officio member of SAOAO Executive Board,
- perform other duties as directed by the SAOAO President, and
iii. not vote in any manner.
Section 405. Transition of Officers. It shall be emphasized that the outgoing National Officers work closely with the newly elected officers to ensure a smooth transition of both the knowledge and workings of the SAOAO for a period of up to 6 months until the next Post-Graduate conference.
Section 406. Vacancies. (a) When a vacancy on the Executive Board exists, the Secretary may receive nominations for the open officer position immediately after notice of the vacancy has been made. (b) In the event the Secretary position becomes vacant, the Vice President will assume the role that is delegated in Section 406 (a). (c) At a time determined by the President, but not exceeding 30 days unless unanimous consent is given by the Executive Board, an election will be held for the vacant position(s). (d) Nominations will be closed no later than one week prior to the date of the election and the nominations shall be sent out to members in an announcement. (e) The election will be governed as outlined in Title VII. (f) These vacancies will be filled only to the end of the current term.
Section 407. Removal. (a) Any officer shall be removed from office if the Officer has been placed on academic or disciplinary probation, or fails to fulfill the required duties, or commits behavior deemed inappropriate of an Officer. (b) Removal of officers shall be approved with consent of two-thirds of the remaining members of the SAOAO Executive Board.
Title V – Committees
Section 501. Formation of Committees. (a) Committees described in this section shall be composed of a Committee Chairperson, The Recording Secretary to be appointed by the Committee Chairperson and approved by unanimous consent of the Executive Board (b) The Recording Secretary’s responsibilities will be to assist the Committee Chairperson in any matters pertaining to the committee’s responsibilities, and to report all business to the Secretary, (c) The Committee Chair may appoint members to their committee as they see fit. (d) All committees shall report to the SAOAO Executive Board. (e) The members of the Executive Board and each Committee Chairperson shall here-in-after and throughout be referred to as the “National Council.”
Section 502. Special Committees. (a) Special committees may be formed by an SAOAO National Executive Board member to organize and direct SAOAO activities and to formulate and recommend policies regarding SAOAO issues and problems.
Section 503. Removal. (a) Any Committee Chairperson shall be removed from office if the Committee Chairperson has been placed on academic or disciplinary probation, or fails to fulfill the required duties or commits behavior deemed inappropriate of a Committee Chairperson. (b) Removal of Committee Chairpersons shall be approved with consent of two-thirds of the remaining members of the National Council.
Title VI – Meetings
Section 601. Definitions. (a) Council meetings shall be defined as those meetings comprising the National Council, as defined in Section 501(e). (b) National meetings shall be defined as those comprising the National Council, as defined in Section 501(e), and any member of the SAOAO or AOAO in attendance.
Section 602. Purpose. (a) The purpose of Council meetings is to discuss and form unified opinions and recommendations on issues facing the SAOAO and its members, to conduct orders of business, and to hold votes on matters requiring such measures. (b) The purpose of National meetings is to foster communication between the Executive Board and Committee Chairpersons with all members of SAOAO; and to share information pertaining to Local Chapters and to serve as a forum for the member voice.
Section 603. Meeting Times. (a) Council Meetings shall be held no less than monthly and as needed throughout the year, beginning no later than four (4) weeks following elections of new Officers and Committee Chairpersons. (b) National Meetings shall be held semi-annually at the National AOAO conferences.
- Notice of Council Meeting time, date, and location shall be posted by the SAOAO President or his/her designee, no later than one (1) weeks prior to the scheduled meeting.
- Notice of National Meeting time, date, and location shall be posted by the SAOAO President or his/her designee, no later than sixty (60) days prior to the scheduled meeting.
Section 604. Meeting Attendance. (a) SAOAO Officers, as defined in Section 401, shall
i. attend all Executive Board and National Council meetings,
ii. be allowed four (4) excused absences from Executive Board and National Council meetings,
a. excused absences will be granted for any legitimate reason, determined and monitored by the SAOAO President, and can only be considered excused with at minimum a three (3) day notice barring extenuating circumstances,
iii. be allowed one (1) unexcused absence from Executive Board and National Council meetings.
a. any absence without adequate notice or for any reason determined to not be legitimate is considered an unexcused absence.
b. Notwithstanding Section 407, two (2) unexcused absences from required meetings will be considered grounds for removal from office, pending a unanimous decision by the remaining members of the Executive Board.
(b) SAOAO Committee Chairpersons, as defined in section 501, shall,
i. attend all National Council meetings,
ii. be allowed four (4) excused absences from National Council meetings,
iii. excused absences will be granted for any legitimate reason, determined and monitored by the SAOAO President, and can only be considered excused with at minimum a three (3) day notice, barring extenuating circumstances,
iv. be allowed one (1) unexcused absence from National Council meetings.
v. any absence without adequate notice or for any reason determined to not be legitimate is considered an unexcused absence.
vi. Notwithstanding Section 407, two (2) unexcused absences from required meetings will be considered grounds for removal from office, pending a unanimous decision by the remaining members of the Executive Board.
Section 605. Requirements for Voting. (a) All business, unless otherwise specified in the Constitution and Bylaws, shall be transacted by a simple majority of votes cast. (b) A Quorum will consist of no less than seventy (70%) percent of SAOAO Executive Board members.
Title VII – Elections
Section 701. Dates of Elections. (a) Elections for Officers and Committee Chairpersons, as defined in Section 401(a) and 501(a), shall be held at the annual Fall National Meeting.
Section 702. Conduct of Elections. (a) Elections for SAOAO National Council shall be determined by a majority division of votes casted.
i. A simple majority of 50% of all votes casted is not required for determining a winner of an election, merely the candidate with the most supporting votes will be selected as the winner of the election.
(b) Each Osteopathic medical college campus in attendance will be allotted one vote per position. (c) A minimum of one representative from a medical college, not including current national executive board members, must be present at the elections in order for that local college’s votes to be considered for the election. (d) All current SAOAO Executive Board members in good standing will complete a ballot for all elections and positions. (e) Votes casted by SAOAO Executive Board members will be equally weighed to votes of local chapters. (f) National Executive Board members votes will be cast separately to institutional votes. (g) Should a SAOAO Executive Board member not be present at the time of elections for any reason, they shall be permitted to submit a ballot to the Chairperson of the Elections Committee for only the position of President in advance.
Section 703. Election Eligibility. (a) All National SAOAO members in good standing are eligible to run for any position that is available, provided they satisfy the specific position requirements. (b) All candidates during an election must be present at the time the election is conducted. (c) Exceptions to Section 703(b) shall include: if a current SAOAO member has provided substantial advanced notice to the SAOAO Executive Board of an absence that is unavoidable or has justifiable circumstances preventing their attendance, that member will be permitted to be considered as a candidate for any and all positions, provided they meet the specified criteria. (d) The eligibility criteria for the office of President includes having previously served on the National SAOAO Executive Board. (e) If no such candidate exists for the office of President as outlined in section 703(d), open elections will be held.
Section 704. Election Administration. (a) The current National Executive Board, shall administer the election in accordance with the following duties:
i. Shall be responsible for ensuring that all votes are properly counted and certified.
ii. Shall ensure that the candidates for office are in good academic and disciplinary standing.
iii. Shall ensure that any and all candidates have met eligibility criteria.
iv. Shall conduct elections for the different positions in the following order: President, Vice President, Secretary, Treasurer, Conference Chair, Recruitment Chair, and Membership Chair.
v. Shall call a vote for each position individually after the introduction of and statements from all candidates running are heard.
vi. Shall allow any candidate who was not elected to a position to run for any other subsequent position.
vii. Elections are to be conducted by the outgoing National SAOAO Executive Board members, should such members exist.
viii. In the event that no outgoing members exist, the election shall be conducted by the current National SAOAO President.
Section 704.’ Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, with the majority consent of the Executive Board, the National Executive Board may implement policies that ensure the fair and impartial administration of elections, including administration of Special Elections.
Title VIII – Dues
Section 801. National Dues Assessment. (a) Dues for active members shall be a one time fee of $60.00 for a 4 year Active Membership paid to the National SAOAO. (b) National Active Member dues will be $60.00 regardless of the students’ year in Medical School. (c) Active Members who paid their dues prior to May 1, 2020 will be considered Active Members and be granted full access to Member Resources throughout their tenure as a Medical Student.
Section 802. Local Chapter Assessment. (a) Each local SAOAO chapter reserves the right to charge a chapter assessment in addition to the national dues. Chapter Assessment is not to exceed $100 (Local Chapter Dues of $40 and National Dues of $60). The local chapter officers shall determine the Chapter Assessment annually and will notify SAOAO of the determined assessment by September 1st. (b) In addition to the Assessment, local SAOAO chapters have the right to develop and sell goods for educational use and/or for promoting the SAOAO or AOAO.
Title IX – Budget and Appropriations
Section 901. Construction. Nothing in this Title shall be construed to permit the reallocation of SAOAO appropriations at times other than those specified under these bylaws.
Section 902: Origin of funds. (a) The overall SAOAO budget shall come from appropriations from the AOAO and national fees collected by all Local Chapters and submitted to the Treasurer. (b) Additional funds for SAOAO activities may be acquired through, but not limited to, fundraising and sponsorship efforts of the SAOAO.
Section 903. Appropriations. (a) The SAOAO account will fund National and Council Meetings, expenses incurred by day to day operations of the SAOAO Executive Board, and any sanctioned events held by SAOAO members approved for funding by unanimous vote of the Executive Board. (b) The Executive Board may allocate additional funds to endeavors it sees fit for the advancement of the SAOAO, provided that,
- Any endeavor be documented, approved by the majority of the Executive Board, and recorded to the Treasurer,
- A preliminary budget be submitted to the Treasurer prior to the event,
iii. Remaining appropriations are returned to the SAOAO account.
Title X – Local Chapters
Section 1001: Establishing a New Local Chapter. (a) A petition to become a local chapter must be written, signed by at least five students currently enrolled and in good standing at an osteopathic medical school or an institution or branch campus of an AOA accredited school and submitted to the SAOAO email at [email protected] along with a Letter of Intent to include the mission statement of the new local chapter. The Executive Board Recruitment Chair will review and present new chapter applications to the Executive Board. (b) Local Chapter status shall be granted by majority vote of the Executive Board to new chapters pursuant to provisions of this Title. (c) In the event that a student does not have a local chapter, or their local chapter is not active, a student may be an independent member of SAOAO.
Section 1002. Chapter Restrictions. (a) There shall not be more than one such chapter at any osteopathic medical school. (b) Local Chapters may contain dual partnership with other national Sports Medicine organizations. Neither the SAOAO chapter nor the Sports Medicine chapter shall be the parent or subsidiary organization but shall run in tandem with one another. Each national organization shall administer its own membership dues and requirements and the members are subject to each organization’s bylaws. (c) The local chapter is required to maintain SAOAO in its club name, provided the college approves of a submitted name change.
Section 1003. Chapter Benefits. Each chapter shall enjoy equal rights and representation within the SAOAO as set forth in the Constitution and Bylaws.
Section 1004: Chapter Requirements. (a) A Local Chapter shall be considered in good standing provided that,
i. an annual activities summary, an annual reporting of the chapter’s student roster, and all other administrative forms requested by the SAOAO Executive Board be completed by the Fall conference.
ii. 100% of the chapter’s members are active members as defined in Sections 301 and 801,
iii. Each chapter shall be represented at a minimum of one (1) national conference every two (2) years.
iv. club activities are reported semi-annually at each National Conference.
Title XI – Parliamentary Authority
Section 1101. Parliamentary Rules. (a) The rules contained in the Robert’s Rules of Order (10th Revision) shall govern the SAOAO in all cases to which they are applicable and not inconsistent with these bylaws and constitution or any special rules of order adopted by the SAOAO Executive Board.
Title XII – Amendments
Section 1201: Amendment. (a) Members of the SAOAO Executive Board may submit an amendment to these bylaws and constitution to the SAOAO Executive Board, provided that,
- SAOAO Executive Board shall first adopt the proposal to amend the bylaws and constitution.
(b) An amendment to these bylaws and constitution may also be proposed by petition endorsed by one (1) Local Chapters and submitted to the Secretary by its Chapter President, provided that,
- The petition shall be presented to the SAOAO Executive Board and the proposal shall be adopted as written,
- Such amendments shall be submitted to the Secretary no later than fifteen (15) days prior to the next SAOAO Executive Board Meeting.
Section 1202: Ratification. (a) Proposed amendments to these bylaws and constitution shall be adopted and voted upon by the SAOAO Executive Board. (b) A vote to ratify the adopted amendment shall take place following an open forum discussion on the proposed changes, provided that,
- A two-thirds (2/3) vote of a quorum shall be required to ratify the amendment,
- Provisions shall be made by the President to receive and certify votes of absent members of the SAOAO Executive Board should their absence be approved prior to the meeting.
Iii. Bylaws are to be reviewed and ratified by each National Executive Board a minimum of once per elected term.
Last amended and ratified 12/21/2022